Gender Gap pada Tingkat Partisipasi Kerja di Provinsi DKI Jakarta

Gender Gap in Employment Participation Rate in DKI Jakarta Province

  • Azwar Anas Biro Perekonomian Setda Provinsi DKI Jakarta
  • Maria Goreti Arie Damayanti Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis Universitas Indonesia
Keywords: dekomposisi, gender gap, tingkat partisipasi kerja


This research aims to decompose the employment participation rate to explain gender gap in DKI Jakarta Province in three periods (1995, 2005, and 2015). Determinant of employment participation rate of men and women was estimated by probit regression model and marginal eect. Non-linear decomposition technique used to analyze the source of gender gap. The results show that the main cause of gender gap comes from structural factors in the labor market (discrimination). The value of the gender gap in 20 years has decreased, in 1995, 2005, and 2015 it was 40,82%; 39,17%; and 29,34% respectively. It shows that the discrimnination rate in Jakarta has decreased. ----------------------------------- Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan dekomposisi pada tingkat partisipasi kerja untuk menjelaskan gender gap di Provinsi DKI Jakarta pada tiga periode, yaitu 1995, 2005, dan 2015. Determinan tingkat partisipasi kerja laki-laki dan perempuan diestimasi menggunakan model regresi probit dan efek marginal, sedangkan untuk menganalisis sumber gender gap digunakan teknik dekomposisi nonlinear. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan penyebab utama gender gap tingkat partisipasi kerja berasal dari faktor-faktor struktural di pasar tenaga kerja (diskriminasi). Nilai gender gap dalam 20 tahun makin mengecil, pada tahun 1995, 2005, dan 2015 nilainya sebesar 40,82%; 39,17%; dan 29,34%. Hal ini menunjukkan tingkat diskriminasi di Jakarta makin berkurang.


Download data is not yet available.


Appleton, S., Hoddinott, J., & Krishnan, P. (1999). The gender wage gap in three African countries. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 47(2), 289–312. doi:

Bhorat, H., & Hodge, J. (1999). Decomposing shifts in labour demand in South Africa. South African Journal of Economics, 67(3), 155–168. doi:

Blinder, A. S. (1973). Wage discrimination: reduced form and structural estimates. The Journal of Human Resources, 8(4), 436–455. doi: 10.2307/144855.

Bloom, D. E., & Freeman, R. B. (1986). The effects of rapid population growth on labor supply and employment in developing countries. Population and Development Review, 12(3), 381–414. doi: 10.2307/1973216.

Borjas, G. (2016). Labor Economics (7th Edition). New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

B¨orsch-Supan, A. (2003). Labor market effects of population aging. Labour, 17(s1), 5–44. doi:

BPS. (2016). Indikator pasar tenaga kerja Indonesia Agustus 2016. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.

BPS Provinsi DKI Jakarta. (2015, 16 Februari). Komuter DKI Jakarta Tahun 2014. Berita Resmi Statistik BPS Provinsi DKI Jakarta No.12/02/31/Th.XVII. Jakarta: BPS Provinsi DKI Jakarta. Diakses 2 Februari 2017 dari

BPS Provinsi DKI Jakarta. (2016a). Jakarta dalam angka 2016. Jakarta: BPS Provinsi DKI Jakarta.

BPS Provinsi DKI Jakarta. (2016b). Keadaan angkatan kerja DKI Jakarta Agustus 2015. Jakarta: BPS Provinsi DKI Jakarta.

BPS Provinsi DKI Jakarta. (2017). Jakarta Dalam Angka 2017. Jakarta: BPS Provinsi DKI Jakarta.

Cahuc, P., & Zylberberg, A. (2004). Labor economics. London: The MIT Press.

Christofides, L. N., Li, Q., Liu, Z., & Min, I. (2003). Recent two-stage sample selection procedures with an application to the gender wage gap. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, 21(3), 396–405. doi:

Cr´epon, B., Deniau, N., & P´erez-Duarte, S. (2003). Wages, productivity, and worker characteristics: A French perspective. Working Papers 2003-04. Centre de Recherche en ´ Economie et Statistique-Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques (CREST-INSEE). Diakses 2 Februari 2017 dari

Du, F., Yang, J., & Dong, X. Y. (2006). Women’s employment and industrial restructuring in China: Investigation using urban household surveys. PMMA Network Session Paper. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: 5th PEP Research Network General Meeting, June 18-22, 2006. Diakses 3 Maret 2017 dari events/5th ethiopia/Fenglian Du.pdf.

Ehrenberg, R. G., & Smith, R. S. (2012). Modern labor economics: theory and public policy (11th Edition). Pearson.

Even,W. E., & Macpherson, D. A. (1990). Plant size and the decline of unionism. Economics Letters, 32(4), 393–398. doi:

Even, W. E., & Macpherson, D. A. (1993). The decline of private-sector unionism and the gender wage gap. Journal of Human Resources, 28(2), 279-296. doi: 10.2307/146204.

Fairlie, R. W. (2005). An extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique to logit and probit models. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, 30(4), 305–316. doi: 10.3233/JEM-2005-0259.

Faridi, M. Z., Malik, S., & Basit, A. B. (2009). Impact of education on female labour force participation in Pakistan: empirical evidence from primary data analysis. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS), 29(1), 127–140.

Feridhanusetyawan, T., Aswicahyono, H., & Perdana, A. A. (2001). The male-female wage differentials in Indonesia. CSIS Working Paper Series WPE 059. Centre for Strategic and International Studies.

Fortin, N., Lemieux, T., & Firpo, S. (2011). Decomposition methods in economics. Dalam O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (Eds.), Handbook of Labor Economics (Vol. 4, pp. 1-102). Elsevier. doi:

Fuchs, J. (2015). Decomposing the effect of population ageing on labour supply. Athens Journal of Social Sciences, 2(2), 109–124. doi:

Gujarati, D. N., & Porter, D. C. (2009). Basic econometrics (5th Edition). New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Hennigusnia, H. (2014). Kesenjangan upah antar jender di Indonesia: glass ceiling atau sticky floor? Jurnal Kependudukan Indonesia, 9(2), 83–96. doi:

Jedwab, R., & Osei, R. D. (2012). Structural change in Ghana 1960-2010. IIEP Working Paper 2012-12. Institute for International Economic Policy - George Washington University. Diakses 25 Mei 2017 dari IIEPWP2012-12.pdf.

Jones, D. R., & Makepeace, G. H. (1996). Equal worth, equal opportunities: pay and promotion in an internal labour market. The Economic Journal, 106(435), 401-409. doi:

Kapsos, S., Silberman, A., & Bourmpoula, E. (2014). Why is female labour force participation declining so sharply in India? ILO Research Paper No. 10. Diakses 25 Mei 2017 dari 250977/lang--en/index.htm.

Liu, Q. (2012). Unemployment and labor force participation in urban China. China Economic Review, 23(1), 18-33. doi:

McConnell, C. R., Brue, S. L., & Macpherson, D. A. (2017). Contemporary labor economics contemporary labor economics (11th Edition). New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Mduma, J. K. (2014). Gender differences in rural off-farm employment participation in Tanzania: Is spatial mobility an issue?. African Journal of Economic Review, 2(1), 3-24.

Mei, J. (2014). The gender gap in labour force participation in Canada [Thesis]. Major paper presented to the Department of Economics of the University of Ottawa in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the M.A. Degree.

Nor, N. A. A. L. M., & Said, R. (2014). Malaysia’s labour force participation in rural and urban areas. Asian Economic and Financial Review, 4(10), 1461-1472.

Nor, N. A. A. M., & Said, R. (2016). Determinants and changes of labor force participation in Malaysia: Gender perspective. International Journal of Science Commerce and Humanities, 4(4), 16–29.

Ntuli, M. (2007). Determinants of South African Women’s Labour Force Participation, 1995–2004. IZA Discussion Papers 3119. Institute of Labor Economics (IZA). Diakses 28 Juli 2017 dari

O’Sullivan, A. (2012). Urban economics (8th Edition). New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Oaxaca, R. (1973). Male-female wage differentials in urban labor markets. International Economic Review, 14(3), 693–709. doi: 10.2307/2525981.

Pag´an, J. A. (2002). Gender differences in labor market decisions in rural Guatemala. Review of Development Economics, 6(3), 428-441. doi:

Pag´an, J. A., & S´anchez, S. M. (2000). Gender differences in labor market decisions: Evidence from rural Mexico. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 48(3), 619-637. doi:

Pag´an, J. A., & S´anchez, S. M. (2001). Gender issues in workforce participation and self-employment in rural Mexico. In E. G. Katz & M. C. Correia (Eds.), The economics of gender in Mexico: work, family, state, and market (pp. 204–226). Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

Psacharopoulos, G., & Tzannatos, Z. (1992). Women’s employment and pay in Latin America. Washington, D.C. Diakses 2 Februari 2017 dari

Schaner, S., & Das, S. (2016). Female labor force participation in Asia: Indonesia country study. ADB Economics Working Paper Series 474. Asian Development Bank. Diakses 2 Februari 2017 dari

Sinning, M., Hahn, M., & Bauer, T. K. (2008). The Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition for nonlinear regression models. The Stata Journal, 8(4), 480-492. doi:

Sprague, A. (1994). Work experience, earnings and participation: evidence from the women and employment survey. Applied Economics, 26(7), 659-667. doi:

Todaro, M. P., & Smith, S. C. (2012). Economic development (11th Edition). Pearson.

Toossi, M. (2012). Labor force projections to 2020: A more slowly growing workforce. Monthly Labor Review, January, 43-64.

Widarti, D. (1998). Determinants of labour force participation by married women: the case of Jakarta. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 34(2), 93-120. doi:

Yun, M.-S. (2000). Decomposition analysis for a binary choice model. IZA Discussion Paper Series 145. Institute of Labor Economics (IZA). Diakses 28 Juli 2017 dari

  • Abstract 1772

  • PDF 2348
Abstract Metrics
Abstract view : 1772 times

PDF - 2348 times
How to Cite
Anas, A., & Damayanti, M. G. A. (2020). Gender Gap pada Tingkat Partisipasi Kerja di Provinsi DKI Jakarta. Jurnal Ekonomi Dan Pembangunan Indonesia, 20(1), 56-78.