Pengaruh Harga Bensin terhadap Kecelakaan Lalu Lintas di Indonesia

Eny Kusdarwati, Djoni Hartono

Abstract


The Impact of Gasoline Price on Trac Accident in Indonesia

Traffic accident ranks the ninth largest of the cause of death in Indonesia. The most of researches studying Indonesia on traffic accidents were only blaming on human, motor vehicles, and environment as main culprits, not incorporating economic factors into the models. This study aims to analyze the impact of real gasoline prices on trac accident in Indonesia and the factors of influence them. This research employs time series data from 1970 to 2013 with OLS analysis world crude oil prices as instrument variable. The estimator results show that real price of gasoline and the policy of usage of motorcycle light insignificant on traffic accident. Meanwhile, real GDP and asphalt roads significantly decrease the traffic accident. However, motorcycles significantly increase the traffic accident.

Keywords: Real Price of Gasoline; Trac Accident; Externality

 

Abstrak

Kecelakaan lalu lintas menempati urutan kesembilan penyebab kematian di Indonesia. Kebanyakan penelitian kecelakaan di Indoneia menitikberatkan pada faktor manusia, kendaraan, dan lingkungan, tetapi belum ada yang memasukkan faktor-faktor ekonomi ke dalam modelnya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah ingin mengetahui pengaruh harga riil bensin terhadap kecelakaan lalu lintas di Indonesia serta faktor-faktor yang memengaruhinya. Penelitian ini menggunakan data time series Indonesia dari tahun 1970 hingga 2013 dan menggunakan OLS dengan variabel instrumen harga minyak mentah dunia. Hasil estimasi menunjukkan bahwa harga riil bensin dan kebijakan penggunaan lampu utama sepeda motor tidak signifikan terhadap kecelakaan lalu lintas. Sedangkan PDB riil dan jalan aspal signifikan berpengaruh menurunkan kecelakaan. Namun, sepeda motor berdampak signifikan meningkatkan kecelakaan lalu lintas.


Keywords


Harga Riil Bensin; Kecelakaan Lalu Lintas; Eksternalitas

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adystiani, R.Y. (2014, 22 Desember). Ini Dia 10 Penyebab Kematian Tertinggi di Indonesia. Aura.co.id. Diakses dari http://www.aura.co.id/articles/Kesehatan/522-ini-dia-10-penyebab-kematian-tertinggi-di-indonesia. Tanggal akses 27 Februari 2015.

Anastasopoulos, P. C., Tarko, A. P., & Mannering, F. L. (2008). Tobit Analysis ofVehicle Accident Rates on Interstate Highways. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 40(2), 768–775.

AJTP. (2013). ASEAN-Japan Transport Statistics Book, December 2013: Compilation of Statistical Database of Road, Rail, Water and Air transport sector in ASEAN and Japan. ASEAN-Japan Transport Partnership. Diakses dari http://www.ajtpweb.org/ajtp/statistics/StatisticsBook2013-1203F.pdf. Tanggal akses 16 Juni 2015.

Badan Intelijen Negara. (2013). Kecelakaan Lalu Lintas Menjadi Pembunuh Terbesar Ketiga. Diakses dari http://www.bin.go.id/awas/detil/197/4/21/03/2013/kecelakaan-lalu-lintas-pembunuh-terbesar-ketiga. Tanggal akses 27 Februari 2015.

BPS. Statistik Kendaraan Bermotor dan Panjang Jalan, [Berbagai tahun terbitan]. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.

BPS. Statistik Perhubungan, [Berbagai tahun terbitan]. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.

BPS. Statistik Transportasi, [Berbagai tahun terbitan]. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.

Burger, N. E., & Kaffine, D. T. (2009). Gas Prices, Traffic, and

Freeway Speeds in Los Angeles. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 91(3), 652–657.

Burke, P. J., & Nishitateno, S. (2015). Gasoline Prices and Road Fatalities: International Evidence. Economic Inquiry, 53(3), 1437–1450.

Chi, G., Cosby, A. G., Quddus, M. A., Gilbert, P. A., & Levinson, D. (2010). Gasoline Prices and Traffic Safety in Mississippi. Journal of Safety Research, 41(6), 493–500.

Chi, G., Zhou, X., McClure, T. E., Gilbert, P. A., Cosby, A. G., Zhang, L., Robertson, A.A., & Levinson, D. (2011). Gasoline Prices and Their Relationship to Drunk-Driving Crashes. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(1), 194–203.

Chi, G., McClure, T. E., & Brown, D. B. (2012). Gasoline Prices and Traffic Crashes in Alabama, 1999–2009. Traffic Injury Prevention, 13(5), 476–484.

Chi, G., Porter, J. R., Cosby, A. G., & Levinson, D. (2013a). The Impact of Gasoline Price Changes on Traffic Safety: A Time Geography Explanation. Journal of Transport Geography, 28, 1–11.

Chi, G., Quddus, M. A., Huang, A., & Levinson, D. (2013b). Gasoline Price Effects on Traffic Safety in Urban and Rural Areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 1998–2007. Safety Science, 59, 154–162.

Direktorat Jenderal Perhubungan Darat. (2011). Rencana Umum Nasional Keselamatan (RUNK) Jalan 2011–2035. Direktorat Jenderal Perhubungan Darat, Kementerian Perhubungan Republik Indonesia. Diakses dari http://hubdat.dephub.go.id/spesial-konten/dokumen-publikasi/umum/1306-rencana-umum-nasional-keselamatan-runk-jalan-2011-2035/download. Tanggal akses 5 Februari 2015.

ESDM. (2013). Harga BBM Dalam Negeri. Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral. Diakses dari http://www2.esdm.go.id/publikasi/harga-energi/harga-bbm-dalam-negeri.html. Tanggal akses 25 Pebruari 2015.

Grabowski, D. C., & Morrisey, M. A. (2004). Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 23(3), 575-593.

Grabowski, D. C., & Morrisey, M. A. (2006). Do Higher Gasoline Taxes Save Lives?. Economics Letters, 90(1), 51–55.

Grimm, M.,&Treibich, C. (2013). Determinants of Road Traffic Crash Fatalities Across Indian States. Health Economics, 22(8), 915–930.

Hyatt, E., Griffin, R., Rue III, L.W., & McGwin Jr., G. (2009). The Association between Price of Reguler-Grade Gasoline and Injury and Mortality Rates among Occupants Involved in Motorcycle- and Automobile-Related Motor Vehicle Collisons. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 41(5), 1075–1079.

Indonesia, R. (2009). Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 22 Tahun 2009 Tentang Lalu Lintas dan Angkutan Jalan.

Korlantas Polri. (2014). Polantas Dalam Angka Tahun 2013. Markas Besar Kepolisian Negara RI Korps Lalu Lintas. Diakses dari http://korlantas.polri.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/PolantasDalamAngka2013.pdf. Tanggal akses 5 Februari 2015.

Manan, M. M. A., & V´arhelyi, A. (2012). Motorcycle Fatalities in Malaysia. IATSS Research, 36(1), 30–39.

Marbun, J., & Amanda, G. (2014, 6 November). Indonesia Urutan Pertama Peningkatan Kecelakaan Lalu Lintas. Republika.co.id. Diakses dari http://www.republika.co.id/berita/nasional/umum/4/11/06/nem9nc-indonesia-urutan-pertama-peningkatan-kecelakaan-lalu-lintas. Tanggal akses 27 Pebruari 2015.

Morrisey, M. A., & Grabowski, D. C. (2011). Gas Prices, Beer Taxes and GDL Programmes: Effects on Auto Fatalities Among Young Adult in the US. Applied Economics, 43(25), 3645–3654.

Nguyen-Hoang, P., & Yeung, R. (2014). Dollars for Lives: The Effect of Highway Capital Investments on Traffic Fatalities. Journal of Safety Research, 51, 109–115.

Nishitateno, S., & Burke, P. J. (2014). The Motorcycle Kuznets Curve. Journal of Transport Geography, 36, 116–123.

O’Sullivan, A. (2012). Urban Economics, 8th Edition. McGraw-Hill.

Oster, C. V., & Strong, J. S. (2013). Analyzing Road Safety in the United States. Research in Transportation Economics, 43(1), 98–111.

Ponnaluri, R. V. (2012). Road Traffic Crashes and Risk Groups in India: Analysis, Interpretations, and Prevention Strategies. IATSS Research, 35(2), 104–110.

Prabuninggar, D. A., Purnaweni, H., & Kismartini. (2013). Implementasi Program Light On (Menyalakan Lampu Utama Bagi Sepeda Motor pada Siang Hari) di Kota Semarang. Journal of Public Policy and Management Review, 3(1), 249–258.

Sleet, D. A., Dahlberg, L. L., Basavaraju, S. V., Mercy, J. A., McGuire, L. C., & Greenspan, A. (2011). Injury Prevention, Violence Prevention, and Trauma Care: Building the Scientific Base. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) Surveill Summ, 60(Supplement 4), 78–85. Atlanta, USA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Diakses dari https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/other/su6004.pdf. Tanggal akses 19 Maret 2015.

Thomas, K. (2009, April 5). US Highway Deaths at Lowest Levels Since 1961. The San Diego Union-Tribune. Diakses dari http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/sdut-highway-deaths-040509-2009apr05-story.html. Tanggal akses 24 Juni 2015.

Traynor, T. L. (2008). Regional Economic Conditions and Crash Fatality Rates – A Cross-County Analysis. Journal of Safety Research, 39(1), 33–39.

Wilson, F. A., Stimpson, J. P., & Hilsenrath, P. E. (2009). Gasoline Prices and Their Relationship to Rising Motorcycle Fatalities, 1990–2007. American Journal of Public Health, 99(10), 1753–1758.

World Bank. (2015). World Development Indicators. Diakses dari http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators. Tanggal akses 27 April 2015.

WHO. (2013a). Global Status Report on Road Safety 2013: Supporting a Decade of Action.World Health Organization. Diakses dari http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/road_safety_status/2013/en/. Tanggal akses 18 Maret 2015.

WHO. (2013b). Top 10 Causes of Death. Fact Sheet No. 310. World Health Organization. Diakses dari http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310.pdf. Tanggal akses 18 Maret 2015.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21002/jepi.v16i2.708

View My Stats
Creative Commons License
JEPI by http://jepi.fe.ui.ac.id/index.php/JEPI/index is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.