Analisis Konsumsi Energi Rumah Tangga Perkotaan di Indonesia: Periode Tahun 2008 dan 2011

Muhammad Nazer, Hefrizal Handra

Abstract


Urban Household Energy Consumption Analysis in Indonesia: Period of 2008 and 2011

The goal of the study is to analyze the pattern and the change of urban household energy consumption and their determinant factors in Indonesia period of 2008 and 2011 using SUSENAS data of household budget survey. The concept of energy ladder and fuel stacking (multi fuel) are used to make a model of household energy consumption. The result of study shows that total energy consumption was increase in the period of 2008 and 2011. Coefficient of income elasticity toward both of modern and traditional energy consumption are positive, it means that there is rising consumption of energy along with the rising income. Household income is the main determinant factor of energy used by household besides other non-economic factors.

Keywords: Energy Consumption; Energy Ladder; Household Energy

 

Abstrak

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pola dan perubahan konsumsi energi rumah tangga daerah perkotaan di Indonesia serta faktor-faktor yang memengaruhinya tahun 2008 dan 2011 dengan memanfaatkan data hasil survei pengeluaran rumah tangga SUSENAS. Konsep energy ladder dan fuel stacking (multi-fuel) diaplikasikan untuk membuat model konsumsi energi rumah tangga. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa konsumsi energi (total), modern, dan tradisional rumah tangga perkotaan mengalami kenaikan pada periode tahun 2008 dan 2011. Koefisien elastisitas pendapatan terhadap konsumsi energi modern dan tradisional bernilai positif, yang berarti bahwa terjadi peningkatan konsumsi energi modern dan tradisional sejalan dengan peningkatan pendapatan. Pendapatan rumah tangga adalah faktor yang paling menentukan konsumsi energi rumah tangga di samping faktor non-ekonomi lainnya seperti luas lantai rumah dan jumlah anggota rumah tangga.


Keywords


Konsumsi Energi; Tangga Energi; Energi Rumah Tangga

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alam, M., Sathaye, J., & Barnes, D. (1998). Urban Household Energy Use in India: Efficiency and Policy Implications. Energy Policy, 26(11), 885–891.

ASTAE. (2013). Indonesia: Menuju Akses Universal Memasak Bersih Tanpa Polusi: Rangkaian Pertukaran Pengetahuan Inisiatif Tungku Sehat Hemat Energi di Asia Timur dan Pasifik. Asia Sustainable and Alternative Energy (ASTAE),World Bank – Program Energi Alternatif dan Berkelanjutan di Asia, Bank Dunia. Washington, DC: International Bank for Recontruction and Development, World Bank – Bank Pembangunan dan Pengembangan Internasional, Bank Dunia. Diakses dari http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/613191468285612553/pdf/792790WP0INDON0Box0382113B00PUBLIC0.pdf. Tanggal akses 24 April 2013.

Atanassov, B. (2010). Socio-cultural Dimensions in Household Cooking Energy Choice. Master’s Thesis in Geography. Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University.

Barnes D. F., Krutilla, K., & Hyde,W. (2004). The Urban Household Energy Transition: Energy, Poverty, and the Environment in the DevelopingWorld.Washington, D.C.: Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), The World Bank. Diakses dari https://www.esmap.org/sites/esmap.org/files/Rpt_UrbanEnergyTransition.pdf. Tanggal akses 15 Oktober 2013.

Berhanu, S. (1999). Econometric Analysis of Household Expenditures. Dissertation. Morgantown, USA: West Virginia University.

Bhattacharjee, S., & Reichard, G. (2011). Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Individual Household Energy Consumption: A Systematic Review. Conference Paper ES2011-54615. Proceedings of the ASME 2011 5th International Conference on Energy Sustainability, August 7–10, 2011,Washington, DC, USA. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).

BPS. (2008a). Analisis dan Penghitungan Tingkat Kemiskinan Tahun 2008. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.

BPS. (2008b). Survei Sosial Ekonomi Nasional (SUSENAS) Tahun 2008. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.

BPS. (2011). Survei Sosial Ekonomi Nasional (SUSENAS) Tahun 2011. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.

Campbell, B. M., Vermeulen, S. J., Mangono, J. J., & Mabugu, R. (2003). The Energy Transition in Action: Urban Domestic Fuel Choices in A Changing Zimbabwe. Energy Policy, 31(6), 553–562.

Caglayan, E., & Astar, M. (2012). A Microeconometric Analysis of Household Consumption Expenditure Determinants for Both Rural and Urban Areas in Turkey. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 2(2), 27–34.

Cohen, C., Lenzen, M., & Schaeffer, R. (2005). Energy Requirements of Households in Brazil. Energy Policy, 33(4), 555–562.

Cruz Islas, I. C. (2013). Energy Consumption of Mexican Households. The Journal of Energy and Development, 38(2), 189–219.

Dwiprabowo, H. (2010). Kajian Kebijakan Kayu Bakar sebagai Sumber Energi di Pedesaan Pulau Jawa. Jurnal Analisis Kebijakan Kehutanan, 7(1), 1–11.

Elkan,W. (1988). Alternatives to Fuelwood in African Towns. World Development, 16(4), 527–533.

Estiri, H., Gabriel, R., Howard, E., & Wang, L. (2013). Different Regions, Differences in Energy Consumption: Do Regions Account for the Variability in Household Energy Consumption?. Working Paper, 134. Seattle, WA: Center for Statistics and the Social Sciences University of Washington. Diakses dari https://www.csss.washington.edu/Papers/wp134.pdf. Tanggal akses 23 September 2013.

Farsi, M., Filippini, M., & Pachauri, S. (2007). Fuel Choices in Urban Indian Households. Environment and Development Economics, 12(6), 757–774.

Foysal, M. A., Hossain, M. L., Rubaiyat, A., Sultana, S., Uddin, M. K., Sayem, M. M., & Akhter, J. (2012). Household Energy Consumption Pattern in Rural Areas of Bangladesh. Indian Journal of Energy, 1(5), 72–85.

Freund, C. L., & Wallich, C. I. (1995). Raising Household Energy Prices in Poland: Who Gains? Who Loses?. Policy Research Working Paper, 1495.Washington, DC:World Bank. Diakses dari http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/966951468757816203/pdf/multi-page.pdf. Tanggal akses 14 Juni 2013.

Gamtessa, S. F. (2003). Household’s Consumption Pattern and Demand for Energy in Urban Ethiopia. International Conference on African Development Archives, Paper 76. International Conference on Development Studies in Ethiopia, July 11–12, 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Diakses dari http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1058&context=africancenter_icad_archive. Tanggal akses 12 Januari 2014.

Gebreegziabher, Z., Mekonnen, A., Kassie, M., & Kohlin, G. (2012). Urban Energy Transition and Technology Adoption: The Case of Tigrai, Northern Ethiopia. Energy Economics, 34(2), 410–418.

Hanna, R., & Oliva, P. (2015). Moving Up the Energy Ladder: The Effect of an Increase in Economic Well-Being on the Fuel Consumption Choices of the Poor in India. The American Economic Review, 105(5), 242–246.

Heltberg, R. (2005). Factors Determining Household Fuel Choice in Guatemala. Environment and Development Economics, 10(3), 337–361.

Hiemstra-Van der Horst, G., & Hovorka, A. J. (2008). Reassessing the ”Energy Ladder”: Household Energy Use in Maun, Botswana. Energy Policy, 36(9), 3333–3344.

Hosier, R. H., & Dowd, J. (1987). Household Fuel Choice in Zimbabwe: An Empirical Test of the Energy Ladder Hypothesis. Resources and Energy, 9(4), 347–361.

Hughes-Cromwick, E. L. (1985). Nairobi Households and Their Energy Use: An Economic Analysis of Consumption Patterns. Energy Economics, 7(4), 265–278.

IPART. (2011). Determinants of Residential Energy and Water Consumption in Sydney and Surrounds: Regression Analysis of the 2008 and 2010 IPART Household Survey Data. Electricity, Gas and Water – Research Report. Sydney, NSW: Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal (IPART) of New South Wales. Diakses dari https://www.ipart.nsw.gov.au/files/sharedassets/website/trimholdingbay/research_report_-_determinants_of_residential_energy_and_water_consumption_in_sydney_and_surrounds_-_december_2011.pdf. Tanggal akses 24 Desember 2013.

Jiang, L., & O’Neill, B. C. (2004). The Energy Transition in Rural China. International Journal of Global Energy Issues, 21(1–2), 2–26.

Lenzen, M., Dey, C., & Foran, B. (2004). Analysis: Energy Requirements of Sydney Households. Ecological Economics, 49, 375–399.

Maconachie, R., Tanko, A., & Zakariya, M. (2009). Descending the Energy Ladder? Oil Price Shocks and Domestic Fuel Choices in Kano, Nigeria. Land Use Policy, 26(4), 1090–1099.

Martiskainen, M., & Coburn, J. (2011). The Role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Household Energy Consumption—Prospects for the UK. Energy Efficiency, 4(2), 209–221.

Masera, O. R., Saatkamp, B. D., & Kammen, D. M. (2000). From Linear Fuel Switching to Multiple Cooking Strategies: A Critique and Alternative to the Energy Ladder Model. World Development, 28(12), 2083–2103.

Meier, H. (2010). Empirical Essays on Energy Expenditures, Fuel Poverty, and Health. Dissertation. Hamburg, Germany: Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften des Fachbereichs Volkswirtschaftlehre der Universitat Hamburg. Diakses dari http://ediss.sub.uni-hamburg.de/volltexte/2011/4962/pdf/THESIS_HM.pdf. Tanggal akses 28 Oktober 2013.

Meier, H. & Rehdanz, K. (2008). Determinants of Residential Space Heating Expenditures in Great Britain. Kiel Working Papers 1439. Kiel, Germany: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW). Diakses dari https://www.ifw-members.ifw-kiel.de/publications/determinants-of-residential-space-heating-expenditures-in-great-britain-1/kwp-1439. Tanggal akses 20 November 2013.

Mensah, J. T., & Adu, G. (2013). An Empirical Analysis of Hosehold Energy Choise in Ghana. Working Paper, 06/2013. Uppsala, Sweden: Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.

Miah, M. D., Kabir, R. R. M. S., Koike, M., Akther, S., & Shin, M. Y. (2010). Rural Household Energy Consumption Pattern in the Disregarded Villages of Bangladesh. Energy Policy, 38(2), 997–1003.

Mirza, B., & Kemp, R. (2011). Why the Rural Rich Remain Energy Poor. Consilience: The Journal of Sustainable Development, 6(1), 133–155.

Nababan, T. S. (2008). Permintaan Energi Listrik Rumah Tangga (Studi Kasus pada Pengguna Kelompok Rumah Tangga Listrik PT PLN (Persero) di Kota Medan). Disertasi. Semarang: Program Studi Doktor Ilmu Ekonomi Universitas Diponegoro.

Nugroho, S. B., Fujiwara, A., Zhang, J., Kanemoto, K., Moersidik, S. S., & Abbas, S. (2010). Development of a Household Energy Consumption Model for Megacities in Asia. Conference Paper. The 16th Annual International Sustainable Development Research Conference, Hong Kong, China, 30 May–1 June 2010.

Pachauri, S., & Spreng, D. (2002). Direct and Indirect Energy Requirements of Households in India. Energy Policy, 30(6), 511–523.

Pitts, A. & Ashby, R. (2011). A Study of the Relationships between Income, Energy Consumption and Home Insulation Installation.UK Energy Research Centre Conference: Energy and People: Futures, Complexity and Challenge, September 2011, Oxford.

Poyer, D. A., Henderson, L., & Teotia, A. P. (1997). Residential Energy Consumption Across Different Population Groups: Comparative Analysis for Latino and Non-Latino Households in USA. Energy Economics, 19(4), 445–463.

Rajmohan, K., & Weerahewa, J. (2007). Household Energy Consumption Patterns in Sri Lanka. Sri Lankan Journal of Agricultural Economics, 9, 55–77.

Rao, V. V. Bhanoji. (1988). Income Distribution in East Asian Developing Countries. Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, 2(1), 26–45.

Reddy, B. S. (2004). Economic and Social Dimensions of Household Energy Use: A Case Study of India. Proceeding paper. In Ortega, E. & Ulgiati, S. (editors): Proceedings of IV Biennial International Workshop ”Advances in Energy Studies”. Unicamp, Campinas, SP, Brazil. June 16-19, 2004, pp. 469–477. Diakses dari http://www.unicamp.br/fea/ortega/energy/Reddy.pdf. Tanggal akses 8 Oktober 2013.

Sadorsky, P. (2012). Information Communication Technology and Electricity Consumption in Emerging Economies. Energy Policy, 48, 130–136.

Shi, W. (2011). Econometric Analysis of Household Energy Consumption in the United States, 2006 and 2008. Thesis. Auburn, Alabama: Graduate Faculty of Auburn University. Diakses dari https://etd.auburn.edu/bitstream/handle/10415/2637/Wen%20Shi%20Thesis.pdf?sequence=2. Tanggal akses 23 September 2013.

Steemers, K., & Yun, G. Y. (2009). Household Energy Consumption: A Study of the Role of Occupants. Building Research & Information, 37(5–6), 625–637.

Swan, L. G., & Ugursal, V. I. (2009). Modeling of End-use Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector: A Review of Modeling Techniques. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13(8), 1819–1835.

Sirichotpundit, P., Poboon, C., Bhanthumnavin, D., & Phoochinda, W. (2013). Factors Affecting Energy Consumption of Households in Bangkok Metropolitan Area. Environment and Natural Resources Journal, 11(1), 31–40.

Sovacool, B. K. (2011). Conceptualizing Urban Household Energy Use: Climbing the ”Energy Services Ladder”. Energy Policy, 39(3), 1659–1668.

Shittu, A. M., Idowu, A. O., Otunaiya, A. O., & Ismail, A. K. (2004). Demand for Energy among Households in Ijebu Division, Ogun State, Nigeria. Agrekon, 43(1), 38–51.

Tampubolon, A. P. (2008). Kajian Kebijakan Energi Biomassa Kayu Bakar. Jurnal Analisis Kebijakan Kehutanan, 5(1), 29–37.

van der Kroon, B., Brouwer, R., & van Beukering, P. J. (2013). The Energy Ladder: Theoretical Myth or Empirical Truth? Results from a Meta-analysis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 20, 504–513.

Walker,W. (1985). Information Technology and the Use of Energy. Energy Policy, 13(5), 458–476.

World Bank. (2003). Household Energy Use in Developing Countries : A Multicountry Study. Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP) Technical Paper Series, 42. Washington, DC: World Bank. Diakses dari http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/560761468780297294/pdf/275880PAPER0Ho1Developing0Countries.pdf. Tanggal akses 24 Desember 2013.

Zin, R. H. Mat. (2005). Income Distribution in East Asian Developing Countries: Recent Trends. Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, 19(2), 36–54.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21002/jepi.v16i2.588

View My Stats
Creative Commons License
JEPI by http://jepi.fe.ui.ac.id/index.php/JEPI/index is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.