Dampak Jaminan terhadap Peluang Memperoleh Kredit bagi UMKM di Sumatera Barat

Joan Marta, Doni Satria



This paper reveals that West Sumatera banking sector are more likely using the availability of collateral for the credit to micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME). Using 384 sample size from MSME in West Sumatera, if a MSME have enough collateral, the probability of their credit application to be rejected by banks will fall from 59.9% to 11.7% comparing to they don’t have enough collateral. This finding proved a credit guarantee scheme is needed, and for the further study it is recommended to conduct research on the characteristic of the potentials of MSME as a credit scoring model for banks.

Keywords: Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises; Banking Credit; Logistic Model



Penelitian ini membuktikan bahwa perbankan di Sumatera Barat cenderung untuk menggunakan jaminan yang cukup sebagai dasar penolakan dan pemberian kredit yang diajukan Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah (UMKM). Menggunakan data hasil survei dengan ukuran sampel sebanyak 384 UMKM di Sumatera Barat, penulis menemukan bahwa peluang sebuah aplikasi kredit yang diajukan UMKM ditolak akan berkurang dari 59,9% menjadi 11,7% jika UMKM tersebut memiliki jaminan yang cukup. Hasil penelitian ini merekomendasikan pentingnya sistem penjaminan kredit untuk UMKM dan sekaligus
merekomendasikan untuk melakukan penelitian lanjutan untuk mengindentifikasi karakteristik UMKM yang memiliki potensi yang baik dan pembuatan model kredit scoring.


Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah; Kredit Perbankan; Model Regresi Logistik

Full Text:



Akerlof, G. A. (1970). The Market for ”Lemons”: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 84(3), 488–500.

Argentiero, A. (2009). Some New Evidence on the Role of Collateral: Lazy Banks or Diligent Banks? Working Paper n. 113. Roma, Italy: Institute for Studies and Economic Analyses (Istituto Di Studi E Analisi Economica/ISAE). Diakses dari https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Amedeo_Argentiero/publication/46469796_Some_New_Evidence_on_the_Role_of_Collateral_Lazy_Banks_or_Diligent_Banks/links/00b4951b3569e7416d000000.pdf. Tanggal akses 23 November 2012.

Bank Indonesia. (2011). Laporan Perekonomian Indonesia Tahun 2010. Jakarta: Direktorat Riset Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Moneter Bank Indonesia. Diakses dari http://www.bi.go.id/id/publikasi/laporan-tahunan/perekonomian/Pages/lpi_2010.aspx. Tanggal akses 7 Desember 2012.

Bank Indonesia. (2012). Statistik Ekonomi dan Keuangan Daerah (SEKDA). Diakses dari www.bi.go.id/id/statistik/sekda/statistikregional.aspx. Tanggal akses 7 Desember 2012.

Bebczuk, R. N. (2004). What Determines the Access to Credit by SMEs in Argentina? Documentos de Trabajo, 48. Diakses dari http://sedici.unlp.edu.ar/bitstream/handle/10915/3532/Documento_completo__.pdf?sequence=1. Tanggal akses 23 November 2012.

Beck,T., Demirguc-Kunt, A., & Levine, R. (2003). Small and Medium Enterprises, Growth, and Poverty: Cross-Country Evidence. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3178. Diakses dari http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/558581468779354920/pdf/WPS3178.pdf. Tanggal akses 7 Desember 2012.

Cowling, M. (2007). The Role of Loan Guarantee Schemes in Alleviating Credit Rationing in the UK. IES Working Paper: WP7. United Kingdom: Institute for Employment Studies (IES) University of Sussex. Diakses dari http://www.employment-studies.co.uk/system/files/resources/files/wp7.pdf. Tanggal akses 23 November 2012.

de Aghion, B. A., & Morduch, J. (2005). The Economics of Microfinance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Diamond, D. W. (1989). Reputation Acquisition in Debt Markets. Journal of Political Economy, 97(4), 828–862.

Gorman, G. G., Rosa, P. J., & Faseruk, A. (2005). Institutional Lending to Knowledge-Based Businesses. Journal of Business Venturing, 20(6), 793–819.

Holton, S., McCann, F., Prendergast, K., & Purdue, D. (2013). Policy Measures to Improve Access to Credit for SMEs: A Survey. Quarterly Bulletin, 4, 91–110.

Jaee, D., & Russell, T. (1976). Imperfect Information, Uncertainty, and Credit Rationing. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 90(4), 651–666.

Le, P. N. M. (2012). What Determines the Access to Credit by SMEs?: A Case Study in Vietnam. Journal of Management Research, 4(4), 90–115.

Levine, R. (2004). Finance and Growth: Theory and Evidence. NBER Working Paper Series 10766. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Diakses dari http://www.nber.org/papers/w10766.pdf. Tanggal akses 7 Desember 2012.

Mahjabeen, R. (2010). On The Provision of Micro Loans - Microfinance Institutions and Traditional Banks. Journal of Economic Development, 35(1), 59–73.

Muravyev, A., Schaefer, D., & Talavera O., (2008). Entrepreneurs’ Gender and Financial Constraints: Evidence from International Data. Discussion Paper Series DP# 11. Kyiv, Ukraine: Kyiv School of Economics and Kyiv Economics Institute. Diakses dari http://repec.kse.org.ua/pdf/KSE_dp11.pdf. Tanggal akses 23 November 2012.

Nuryartono, N., Zeller, M., & Schwarze, S. (2005). Credit Rationing of Farm Households and Agricultural Production: Empirical Evidence in the Rural Areas of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development (Tropentag 2005), University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart-Hohenheim, October 11-13, 2005. Stuttgart, Germany. Diakses dari http://www.tropentag.de/2005/abstracts/full/419.pdf. Tanggal akses 23 November 2012.

Stiglitz, J. E., & Weiss, A. (1981). Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information. The American Economic Review, 71(3), 393-410.

Wanjau, C. W., King’wara, R., Kinyua, A. N., Nyakang’o, E. O., Langat, L. C., & Karani, L. M. (2014). Factors Affecting Access to Credit by Small and Medium Enterprises in Microfinance Institutions in Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. Journal of Innovative Research & Studies, 3(1), 385–402. Diakses dari http://www.ijirs.com/vol3_issue-1/30.pdf. Tanggal akses 7 Desember 2012.

Wesaratchakit, W., Subhanij, T., Roengpitya, R., Sawangngoenyuang, W., & Sereevoravitgul, C. (2010). Financing Thailand for Balanced and Sustainable Growth. Bank of Thailand Symposium 2010, SP/03/2010. Supervision and Monetary Policy Group Bank of Thailand. Diakses dari https://www.bot.or.th/Thai/MonetaryPolicy/ArticleAndResearch/SymposiumDocument/Paper3_2553.pdf. Tanggal akses 23 November 2012.

Winkelmann, R., & Boes, S. (2006). Analysis of Microdata. Springer Science & Business Media.

Wooldridge, J. M. (2005). Introductory Econometrics: A Modern Approach. 3rd Edition. Boston: Addison Wesley.

World Bank. (1994). Can Intervention Work? The Role of Government in SME Success. Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank. (2001). Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) World Bank Group Review of Small Business Activities - 2001. Working Paper 23417. Washington, DC: World Bank. Diakses dari http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/686931468765624340/pdf/multi0page.pdf. Tanggal akses 7 Desember 2012.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21002/jepi.v16i1.457

StatCounter - Free Web Tracker and Counter View My Stats 
Creative Commons License
JEPI by Dept Ilmu Ekonomi  is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.